The ancient traditions and scriptures from different continents talk about a
race of serpent beings endowed with superhuman powers. The scriptural and
folkloric resources are used to present more complete picture of them and
their ancient and recent interaction with humans.
There has been an unprecedented increase of interest in UFO and
paranormal issues in official media. Some consider this to be a result of
leaks from the intelligence community. The fact is that there has been wide
and profound change of public attitude in this regard. An example of this is
how the alien image underwent a significant change during the years, from the
ridiculed "little green men" of the cartoons in the early fifties to the
classical "grays" as benevolent "space brothers" in seventies. Later, however,
they have become more and more malicious and associated with the phenomena of
cattle mutilation and human abduction. This picture is probably the one most
often associated with the word "aliens" nowadays.
But in the past few years there appeared a new type of aliens: the
"reptilians" (also called "reptoids," "sauroids" etc.). The media and market
became flooded by reptile/dragon/dinosaur characters. The entertainment
industry made them almost omnipresent, from children toys and cartoons to most
successful movies. This phenomena is analyzed to some extent in the file The
Cult of the Serpent and others. Several "alien files" available on the internet present a compilation of manifold information about aliens
in earth's history, presence and possible future as well as many of the
related incidents regarding space and underground explorations. They also
include quotations from various scriptures including the Bible and the Vedas.
The term "Veda," literally "knowledge," the indologists usually apply
to the four Vedas: Rg, Sama, Yajur and Atharva. However, in broader sense, it
is also used for the related literature as the Puranas, Brahmanas, Aranyakas,
Itihasas etc. The fact that in these files the reptilians are associated with the Nagas of
the ancient Vedic tradition is one of the reasons I have decided to write this
Saurian Connection: Historical Background of the Serpent
The snake (serpent spirit) has been a symbol of wisdom, eternity, healing,
mystery, magical power, and holiness throughout most of the ancient
non-western world. Its symbol is used today in medicine, and other healing
professions, and its live descendants are hailed as sacred and used in
everything from cancer drugs to sex potions. Serpent was worshipped in ancient
Babylon, Mexico, Egypt, as well as many other places all over the world.
"The word Naga is rooted in Sanskrit and means "serpent." In the East
Indian pantheon it is connected with the Serpent Spirit and the Dragon Spirit.
It has an equivalence to the Burmese Nats, or god-serpents. In the Esoteric
Tradition it is synonymous for Adepts, or Initiates. In India and Egypt, and
even in Central and South America, the Naga stands for one who is wise.
"The [buddhist philosopher] Nagarjuna of India, for example, is shown with an
aura, or halo, of seven serpents which is an indication of a very high degree
of Initiation. The symbolism of the seven serpents, usually cobras, are also
on Masonic aprons or certain systems in the Buddhist ruins of Cambodia
(Ankhor) and Ceylon. The great temple-builders of the famous Ankhor Wat were
considered to be the semi-divine Khmers. The avenue leading to the Temple is
lined with the seven-headed Naga. And even in Mexico, we find the "Naga" which
becomes "Nagal." In China, the Naga is given the form of the Dragon and has a
direct association with the Emperor and is known as the "Son of Heaven"...
while in Egypt the same association is termed "King-Initiate." The Chinese are
even said to have originated with the Serpent demi-gods and even to speak
their language, Naga-Krita. For a place that has no serpents, Tibet, they are
still known in a symbolic sense and are called "Lu!" (Naga). Nagarjuna called
in Tibetan, [becomes] Lu-trub.
"In the Western traditions we find the same ubiquity for the Naga, or Serpent.
One simple example is the Ancient Greek Goddess, Athena. She is known as a
warrior Goddess as well as the Goddess of Wisdom; her symbol being the Serpent
as displayed on her personal shield. Of course, in Genesis the Serpent is a
Naga who instructs the new infant (humanity) in what is called the Knowledge
of Good and Evil. The Christian church has, unfortunately transformed the
Initiate-Teacher into a tempting and negative demon-character. An apocryphal
tradition says that Apollonius of Tyana, while on a visit to India, was taught
by the "Nagas" of Kashmir. (See The Life of Apollonius, by Philostratos) It is
felt by many scholars of the Western Tradition that the life of Apollonius was
taken from the New Testament, or that the narratives of the New Testament have
been taken from the life of Apollonius. This is felt because of the undisputed
and clear similarities of construction of that particular narrative.
"Naga is one of a handful of rare words surviving the loss of the first
universal language. In Buddhism, Wisdom has always been tied, symbolically, to
the figure of the Serpent. In the Western Tradition it can be found as used by
the Christ in the Gospel of Saint Matthew (10:16), "Be ye therefore wise as
serpents, and harmless as doves."
"In all mythological language the snake is also an emblem of immortality. Its
endless representation with its tail in its mouth (Ouroboros), and the
constant renewal of its skin and vigor, enliven the symbols of continued youth
and eternity.
"The Serpent's reputation for positive medicinal and/or life-preserving
qualities have also contributed to the honors of the Serpent as STILL seen by
the employment of the caduceus [staff around which two snakes are wrapped]. To
this very day, the Hindus are taught that at the end of every Universal
Manifestation (Kalpa) all things are re-absorbed into Deity during the
interval between "creations." He reposes upon the Serpent Shesha (Duration)
who is called Ananta, or Endless."
Indoeuropean (Slavic) folklore
The Slavic folklore often mentions snakes as the guards of treasures hidden
underground or in caves closely following the Vedic tradition. Some of the
snakes are said to possess a crown which is an interesting detail as we will
see later.
Although one may be tempted to discount the folklore as unreliable source
there is certain evidence which seems to support it.
Czech herpetologist Jiri Hales writes in his book "Moji pratele hadi ("My
friends, the snakes") about his travels around eastern Slovakia in '70 in
search of unusually great snakes and mentions several interesting accounts he
heard from the local people. One even involves a military unit which was
called to destroy an alleged 15 ft long snake. (Snakes of such length are
unknown in this part of the world.) Another account pertains to a ranger who
noticed a number of snakes in the forest crawling in one direction and out of
curiosity followed them. Thus he has come upon a great "snake king" with a
crown on his head surrounded by many snakes. Scared, he quickly left that
place. Other accounts involve small children who claimed to play with great
snakes and even communicate with them. Hales concludes that these accounts are
credible as they include many details which a layman could not possibly make
up without personal experience.
North America: Hopi tribal tradition
The Hopi legend is that there were two races, the children of the feather who
came from the skies, and the children of the reptile who came from under the
earth. The children of the reptile chased the Hopi Indians out of the earth.
These evil under-grounders were also called Two Hearts.
The Hopi Indian Legend of Creation tells of three different beginnings. One
story says that Hopi have arisen from an underground paradise through an
opening called Sipapu. The underground paradise was wondrous with beautiful
clear skies and plentiful food sources [cf bila-svarga]. It was because of the
existence of those called Two Hearts, the bad ones, that refuge was sought in
the upper world by the Hopi, the peaceful ones. The underworld was not
destroyed but was only sealed up to prevent the Two Hearts from rising upon to
the surface world.
The second story tells of the descent of the Hopi from the Blue Star of a
constellation called the Seven Sisters. One version tells of their travel to
earth on the back of Enki, the eagle. Grandfather, the Great Spirit, allowed
the first man to select his home from the many stars of the universe. Enki
told first man of his home earth, and brought him to visit. First man's
exploration of the earth convinced him that this was where he wanted his
children to be born and to grow. First Man returned to the heavens to tell
Grandfather of his decision. Grandfather was pleased and granted to first man
the right to call earth his home. First man soon returned to the green place
or Sakwap with his family shortly afterwards. (Many of the hero stories
throughout time and through many different cultures refer to a valiant group
of seven.)
These two legends remind of the story of Kashyapa Muni and his two wives,
Kadru, the mother of serpents, and Vinata, the mother of Garuda, the divine
eagle, mentioned later.
Western Africa
The Legend of Da
The world was created by Nana-Buluku, the one god, who is neither male nor
female. In time, Nana-Buluku gave birth to twins, Mawu and Lisa, and it is
they who shaped the world and control it still, with their fourteen children,
the Vodou, or lesser gods.
In the beginning, before Mawu had any children, the Rainbow Serpent, Da,
already existed - created to serve Nana-Buluku. The creator was carried
everywhere in Da's mouth. Rivers, mountains, and valleys twine and curve
because that is how the Rainbow Serpent Da moves. Wherever they stopped for
the night, mountains arose, formed from the serpent's dung. That is why if you
dig down deep into a mountain, you find riches.
Now, when Nana-Buluku had finished creating, it was obvious that the earth
just couldn't carry everything - all the mountains, trees, peoples, and
animals. So, to keep the earth from capsizing, the creator asked Da to coil
beneath it to cushion it - like the pads the African women and girls wear on
their heads when they are carrying a heavy load.
Because Da cannot stand heat, the creator made the ocean for the serpent to
live in. And there Da has remained since the beginning of time, with his tail
in his mouth. Even though the water keeps Da cool, he sometimes shifts around
trying to get comfortable, and that's what causes earthquakes.
Nana-Buluku tasked the red monkeys who live beneath the sea to keep Da fed,
and they spend their time forging the iron bars that are the serpent's food.
But sooner or later the monkey's supply of iron is bound to run out, and then
Da will have nothing to eat. Famished with hunger, he will start to chew on
his own tail, and then his writhings and convulsions will be so terrible that
the whole earth will tilt, overburdened as it is with people and things, and
slip into the sea.
This legend mentions the serpent serving the creator god. This serpent
resembles Ananta Shesha, who serves Vishnu as a bed and supports the universal
structure. They are both situated at the bottom of the universe on the great
ocean called Garbhodaka.
The Norse Ragnarok involves the destruction of the earth and the abodes of the
Norse demigods (called Asgard). It is said that during Ragnarok the world is
destroyed with flames by a being called Surt, who lives beneath the lower
world (appropriately called Hel) and was involved in the world's creation. By
comparison, the Bhagavata Purana (3.11.30) states that at the end of Brahma's
day, "the devastation takes place due to the fire emanating from the mouth of
Sankarshana." Sankarshana (Ananta Shesha) is a plenary expansion of Krishna
who is "seated at the bottom of the universe" (Bhagavata Purana 3.8.3),
beneath the lower planetary systems.
In the Norse lore there can be found more connections to the Vedic tradition
but they go beyond the present topic.
Tibetan Buddhist perspective of the Nagas comes from Cho-Yang's "Year of Tibet
"Among all the creatures of the six realms, humans are the most fortunate, and
have the best opportunity for attaining the ultimate achievement. Gods and
demi-gods dwell in immeasurable happiness, exhausting the fruits of their
positive karma, and are too distracted with worldly pleasure to seek
liberation from cyclic existence. Hungry ghosts and hell beings are too
disturbed with suffering and animals are too dumb. Humans, who enjoy both
pleasure and pain are the only ones who can seek liberation. (...)
"Unseen forces are believed to be as numerous as those we can see: in every
pond, forest, tree, house, dwell creatures big and small, important and humble
which occasionally appear to humans in various forms, as well as in visions
and in dreams.
"All these creatures are believed to be ruled by the protectors of the ten
directions. These deities include gods from the Hindu pantheon such as Brahma
and Indra. They are gods, and though they are immensely powerful and believed
to control all the forces of the universe they are not beyond the wheel of
cyclic existence and thus cannot be an object of refuge for humans aspiring
for liberation. They may or may not be sympathetic to the Buddhist doctrine,
but their help and cooperation can be cultivated and is considered essential,
since they control all other non-human creatures, gods, demi-gods and ghosts.
Tantric rituals always include an offering to them at the beginning to assure
their non-interference.
"The creatures dwelling in individual places are called Sa-dag or land owners,
or guardian deities. They belong to the realm of demi-gods or ghosts - not all
ghosts are miserable creatures, some are wealthy and powerful demons. They may
appear to people as ghosts, demons, or in dreams in an infinite variety of
forms, including the human one and may either help or harm depending on their
disposition. Many of the creatures in lakes, ponds and rivers are nagas, or
serpent beings who belong to the animal realm. They sometimes appear in the
form of snakes, or as half snakes and half humans with elaborate jeweled
crowns. They are believed to be infinitely wealthy and to owe their present
form to a previous life of unethical generosity. [Comment: This is called
bhogonmukhi-sukrti, or pious activities that bestow material opulence. They
are of godless nature but involve kindness to other beings, with a view toward
material happiness.]
"Human activity is bound to encroach on the well-being of living creatures
including those of other realms. Coming to a plot of land and inadvertently
building a house, cutting trees or mining and digging natural resources will
upset nagas and sa-dags just as it does animals and insects in such a
situation. It is said that sa-dags and nagas equate the unauthorized use of
land and natural resources they occupy to pilfering their personal
possessions. The weaker ones among them will undergo great hardship or die
off, while the more powerful will react with anger and strike back at the
offenders, inflicting disease, death, and sudden catastrophe. They will not
necessarily strike at the humans having committed the harm, as most cannot
identify the actual offenders, but at any human they see, and innocent people
may fall ill or die for no apparent reason, or the whole area be affected with
epidemics or cases of leprosy.
"The following story was related by a Dema Locho Rinpochey, from Drepung, and
occurred in the 1950s in Tibet. One day, one of the monks who was responsible
for having the trees in the debating square watered, developed a large sore on
his thigh. Suspecting it was caused by harm from nagas, he asked Rinpochey to
consult an oracle in a nearby village - a nun who was possessed by nagas - to
find out the cause of his illness. The naga, speaking through the oracle
admitted having caused the harm: 'Yes, it was I who struck at that monk.' When
Rinpochey asked the reason, it replied: 'I was angry at humans for other
reasons and I saw this monk's luck was down and that he was vulnerable, so I
caused him to develop this sore'.
"Humans are most vulnerable to nagas and sa-dags when their luck is low, as it
is said that any weakness is immediately apparent to these other-worldly
creatures. In order to avert unlucky circumstances which may bring one harm,
people hang up strings of different prayer flags bearing the image of a horse.
The 'wind-horse' or Lung-ta is the symbol of one's luck. The Tibetan
expression 'His wind-horse is running' or 'is broken' refers to this luck, and
the prayer flags fluttering in the wind, a tradition of Bon origin, is
believed to give the upper hand to one's wind-horse.
"Since humans cannot survive without some form of land exploitation and
building, Tibetans take certain measures to prevent unnecessary mishaps. While
the hanging of prayer flags is like a general preventive measure, that of
avoiding harm which has no direct cause, more particular measures are sought
when any kind of digging is involved. Whenever choosing a site for building,
whether for a mandala, temple or house, a lama is consulted as to the method
by which the nagas and sa-dag on the site might be appeased and treated. The
lama will know something about them either through dreams, divination or
clairvoyance. According to Buddhist tantric practice, there are other ways of
performing rituals. These are: peaceful, increasing, forceful and wrathful.
The methods that apply to pacifying creatures of other realms are peaceful and
wrathful, and the rituals used are extremely varied, in type as well as in
"Generally, in either case, a ritual based on sutra called Tashi Sojong is
performed, to bring good luck and please the dwellers. If performing tantric
rituals, the lama will offer tormas to the sa-dag or nagas abiding on the
land. Tormas are conical-shaped offering cakes which have been blessed in
three ways by a highly realized being by mantras, where they are purified from
any defilements of ordinariness, by meditational stabilization, by which they
are made infinite and by gestures, or mudras, which ensure that the recipient
is satisfied. The idea of this ritual is to offer gifts to the sa-dag and
nagas in exchange for use of their land. It is a deal, a give and take
situation like selling a house, and if the 'sellers' are satisfied, things
will proceed smoothly. There are some situations, however, where the land may
be owned by particularly powerful sa-dags, who will not want to give in to
humans and will do their utmost to create obstacles and harm. Such places are
known as 'rough'. The spirits and demons inhabiting them will be unyielding in
their views and generally delight in causing harm to human trespassers causing
illness and bad dreams. If the lama examining the land sees such a situation,
he will either declare the site unfit for building, or deal with the situation
using the wrathful method.
"Through the possibilities are vast, the most commonly used wrathful method
for clearing a site from negative forces, is the 'throwing of ritual cakes'
which is like using a bomb to send harmful creatures to another existence. The
motivation of the lama is one of compassion, and knowing that the purpose of
the project is beneficial one and that the being causing the harm is
accumulating negative karma, he will actually help it by transferring its
consciousness to another realm where it will be of less harm to other beings.
Only a person with a higher level of realization is qualified to perform such
a ritual.
"When obstacles are removed, the Lu Thaye, a very powerful naga believed to be
constantly moving under the ground is dealt with. Sudden digging would disturb
him, but his movements in a particular spot can be plotted astrologically, and
a spot on the plot can be found where no part of his body would be present at
the time of the first, symbolic digging. This would be followed by offerings
of ritual cakes to pacify him. This done, the building could proceed without
further interference.
"In some cases, sa-dags and nagas not only take offense at encroachment on
their land, but at harm inflicted on certain animals they feel are their own.
The following is a story which took place about eighty years ago in a remote
area of Kham. The head of a group of nomads, feeling he was above the law
against hunting wild animals which prevailed in his land, one day decided to
go shooting. He went off with his rifle and spotted a beautiful stag. He aimed
at it, and saw something like a golden stirrup between its antlers. He put
down his rifle and stared, but could see nothing. He aimed and put down his
rifle two or three times, seeing the stirrup appear and disappear, hesitated,
and finally shot. The stag was hit by the bullet but escaped, leaving a trail
of blood. That night, the man returned home, unable to find the carcass of the
animal he had hoped to kill and suddenly became very ill. As he lay dying, he
related to his kin the incident with the stag, regretting he had shot it and
mumbling he should have known better, seeing such an unusual object as a
golden stirrup between its antlers. He died that very night and his family
concluded he was the victim of a revengeful sa-dag to whom either the stag
belonged to or of which he had taken the form.
"Incense and vase-offering rituals, which were routinely performed by the
Tibetan government and also by private individuals and lamas were not only
meant as a remedy in case of drought or other calamities, but also as a
regular preventive measure to bring about positive conditions. Non-human
creatures were known for their liking of fragrant smells, and the tradition of
sang-so, which was originally practised by the Bon to appease and please local
deities, was later practised by Buddhists for the same purpose. In the case of
vase-offering rituals, vases were filled with different precious metals and
cereals, blessed by mantras, meditative stabilization and gestures and placed
in lakes or other places throughout the country where nagas were known to
dwell, as a boon to them. These gifts could be likened to presents offered by
the king of one country to that of another, aimed at pleasing the recipients
who reciprocated with timely rain, pure water and a disease free environment.
They had ways of showing their liking in particular ways. Dema Locho Rinpochey
recalls a time when Drepung Loseling college decided to renovate a small
retreat house on one of their estates, a few hours from Lhasa. The place had a
spring and was known for its important naga and sa-dag population. The college
called on Rinpochey to perform a ritual to keep the nagas out of the way
during the time of the restoration work. This involved attracting them into a
mirror which was transformed, by the lama's concentration, into a very
pleasant abode in which they were asked to remain, as honoured guests, until
their usual dwelling was once more fit to stay in. Rinpoche also offered a
bathing ritual to the spring, purifying any defilements it would have
undergone during the work. He said that the next morning, the caretaker
pointed out that the water was much more abundant than usual, a sign that the
nagas who dwelled in it were pleased."
Middle East
"The possibility that an ancient reptilian-saurian race may exist below the
surface of this planet is not an idea which is relatively new. This infernal
yet physical race has been referred to in spiritual and historical records
which date back to the beginning of time. Ancient Hebrew history, for
instance, records that our human ancestors were not the only intelligent,
free-will beings who inhabited the ancient world. Genesis chapter 3 refers to
the "Serpent," which according to many ancient Hebrew scholars was identified
with a hominoid or bi-ped reptilian being. The ancient Hebrew word for
"Serpent" is "Nachash" (which according to Strong's Comprehensive and other
Biblical concordances contained in itself the meanings: Reptile, Enchantment,
Hissing, Whisper, Diligently Observe, Learn by Experience, Incantation, Snake,
etc. all of which may be descriptive of the serpent-sauroid race which we have
been referring to). The original "Nachash" was not actually a "snake" as most
people believe, but actually an extremely intelligent, cunning creature
possessed with the ability to speak and reason. It also stood upright as we've
said, as did many of it's descendants, the small "saurian" predators which
ambled about on two legs." (from "The Cult of the Serpent" file, edited by
In the book of Genesis Elohim punished the Serpent for deceiving Eve by
ordering him to crawl on his stomach from that time on. They (Elohim) also
created enmity between human and serpent race.
The book of Revelation describes eschatological accounts when the enmity
between human and serpent race escalates into an open conflict: "...And there
was war in heaven: Michael fought against the dragon; and the dragon fought
and his angels... and the great dragon was cast out, that old serpent, called
the Devil, and Satan, which deceiveth the whole world..." (Rev. 12:7)
There are other interesting biblical references to serpents and dragons in
Psalms 44:19, 74:13, 148:7, Issaiah 13:22, etc.
India: Nagas of the Underworld
The Nagas are a race of serpent beings. Most often they manifest themselves
with half-man, half-serpent bodies, although sometimes they assume the shape
of a dragon, or appear in the guise of a cobra. They can take many different
forms including snakes, humans with snake tails and normal humans, often
beautiful maidens. A precious gem is embedded in their heads endowing them
with supernatural powers including invisibility. Some are demoniac, some
neutral or sometimes helpful.
Nagas are divided into four classes: heavenly, divine, earthly or hidden,
depending upon their function in guarding the heavenly palace, bringing
rainfall, draining rivers or guarding treasures.
In Burma, the Nagas combine elements of the dragon, snake and crocodile. They
have guarded and protected several royal Burmese personages. They also give
rubies to those they favor.
They inhabit lakes and rivers, but their real domain is a vast underground
region called Bila-svarga, or subterranean heavens. There they guard great
amounts of jewels and precious metals. Here they dwell with their seductive
mates, the Naginis who sometimes seduce humans.
One such account is to be found for example in the Mahabharata. Arjuna, the
son of King Pandu, was "abducted" by Ulupi, the Naga princess who enamored
him, into the parallel realm in the river Ganges near Hardwar. After spending
a night with her and begetting a son called Iravan, he returned back. This
incident is also mentioned in the Bhagavata Purana 9.22.32. R. Thompson in his
book "Alien Identities" uses this account to give an example of parallel
The Mahabharata story follows:
"When his residence was thus crowded with divinity, the darling son of Pandu
and Kunti then went down into the Ganges water, to be consecrated for holy
rite. Taking his ritual bath and worshiping his forefathers, Arjuna, happy to
take his part in the rite of fire, was rising out of the water, O king, when
he was pulled back in by Ulupi, the virgin daughter of the serpent king, who
could travel about at her will and was now within those waters. Holding onto
him, she pulled him down into the land of the Nagas, into her father's house.
"Arjuna then saw in the most honorable house of the Naga king, whose name was
Kauravya, a carefully attended fire. Dhananjaya Arjuna, son of Kunti, took
over the duty of the fire, and without hesitation he made the offering and
satisfied the sacred flames. Having done the duty to the fire, the son of
Kunti then said laughingly to the daughter of the Naga king, "Why have you
acted so boldly, O shy and beautiful woman? What is the name of this opulent
land? Who are you and whose daughter are you?"
"Ulupi said: "There is a serpent named Kauravya, born in the family of
Airavata. I am his daughter, O Partha, and my name is Ulupi, lady of the
snakes. I saw you, Kaunteya, when you went down into the waters to take your
ritual bath, and I was stunned by Cupid. O Kuru child, now that the god of
love has stirred me up so, you must welcome me, for I have no one else, and I
have given myself to you in a secluded place."
"Arjuna said: "Dharmaraja Yudhisthira has instructed me to practice celibacy
for twelve months, and I agreed; thus I am not my own master. I would like to
please you, but I have never spoken an untruth. How can I avoid a lie and also
please you, snake woman? If it could be done without hurting my religious
principles, then I would do it."
"Ulupi said: "I understand, son of Pandu, how you are wandering the earth, and
how your elder brother has instructed you to practice celibacy: "There will be
a mutual accord that if any one of us mistakenly intrudes upon the others
during their time with Drupada's daughter, then he must remain in the forest
for twelve months as a celibate brahmacari." That was the agreement you all
made. But this exile you agreed upon is in regards to Draupadi. You all
accepted the religious vow to be celibate in relation to her, and so your
religious vow is not violated here with me.
"Your eyes are very big and handsome, and it is your duty to rescue those who
are in pain. Save me now, and there will be no breach of your religious
principles. And even if there is some very subtle transgression of your
religious principles, then let this be religious rule, Arjuna, that you gave
me back my life. My lord, accept me as I have accepted you, for it will be an
act approved by decent people; And if you will not accept me, then know that I
am a dead woman. O strong-armed one, practice the greatest virtue, which is
the act of giving life. I come to you now for shelter, for you are an ideal
"Kaunteya, you always take care of the poor and helpless people, and I have
gone straight to you for shelter and am crying out in pain. I beg you, for my
desire is so strong. Therefore you must please me by giving yourself; it is
proper for you to make me a satisfied woman.
"Sri Vaisampayana said: "Thus addressed by the virgin daughter of the serpent
lord, the son of Kunti, basing his actions on the religious law, did for her
all that she desired. The fiery hero Arjuna spent the night in the palace of
the Naga king, and when the sun rose he too rose up from Kauravya's abode."
Similar story is recorded in the Harivansha, which is the addendum to the
Mahabharata. Yadu, the founder of the Yadava family, went for a trip to the
sea, where he was carried off by Dhumavarna, king of the serpents, to the
capital of the serpents. Dhumavarna married his five daughters to Yadu, and
from them sprang seven distinct families of people.
Kumudvati, the Naga princess, married Kusha, the son of Rama, as described in
the scripture Raghuvansha.
The following account touches upon the issue of underground hominoid-sauroid
The Vishnu Purana speaks about the Gandharvas, descendants of sage Kashyapa
and his wife Muni. Therefore they are also called Mauneyas. (According to
Hindu Dictionary by Manurishi Foundation, the Mauneyas are a class of
Gandharvas, who dwell beneath the earth, and are sixty millions in number.)
They were fighting with the Nagas in the subterranean regions, whose dominions
they seized and whose treasures they plundered. The Naga chiefs appealed to
Vishnu for relief, and He promised to appear in the person of Purukutsa, son
of King Mandhata, to help them. Thereupon the Nagas sent their sister Narmada
to this Purukutsa, and she conducted him to the regions below, where he
destroyed the Gandharvas. (According to the Ramayana similar Gandharvas were
defeated by Bharata, the brother of Rama, and Hanuman.) The ninth khanda of
the Bhagavata Purana also briefly mentions this story.
The Bhagavata Purana narration is based on the incident which happened to King
Pariksit. He was cursed by a young brahmana to die within seven days as a
result of a snakebite. The boy thought the king had offended his father, who
did not welcome the king in his ashrama being absorbed in deep meditation.
Thus the king left after putting a dead snake on sage's shoulder. The king
decided to accept the curse as a will of providence and sat down at the bank
of Ganges to prepare for his death. At that time the great young sage Shuka,
the son of Vyasa, arrived there and the king asked him to explain the most
important knowledge meant for a person about to die. Thus the sage started to
narrate the great Purana. As a result the king attained self-realization.
His son Janamejaya, however, became angry at the serpents and to revenge his
father's death he started a great sacrifice meant to destroy all the serpents
but later he stopped it to please the sage Astika, their relative. (Astika's
father was the sage Jaratkaru who married Manasa, the sister of the Naga king
Vasuki.) The whole story is narrated in the Mahabharata, Adi Parva.
The origin of the Naga race is described in the Mahabharata, Adi Parva:
"Long ago, in the godly millennium, Prajapati Daksha had two brilliant and
sinless daughters, amazing sisters who were gifted with great beauty. Named
Kadru and Vinata, they both became wives of the primordial sage Kashyapa, a
husband who was equal in glory to the Prajapati. Being pleased with his
religious wive, Kashyapa, with much happiness, offered them both a boon.
Hearing of Kashyapa's joyful intention to let them choose an extraordinary
boon, the two excellent women felt an incomparable joy.
"Kadru chose to create one thousand serpent sons, all of equal strength, and
Vinata hankered to have two sons who would exceed all of Kadru's sons in
stamina, strength, valor, and spiritual influence. Her husband awarded her
only one and a half of these desired sons, knowing that she could not have
more. Vinata then said to Kashyapa, "Let me have at least one superior son."
"Vinata felt that her purpose was satisfied and that somehow both sons would
be of superior strength. Kadru too felt her purpose fulfilled, since she would
have one thousand sons of equal prowess. Both wives were delighted with their
boons. Then Kashyapa, that mighty ascetic, urging them to carry their embryos
with utmost care, retired to the forest.
"After a long time Kadru produced one thousand eggs, O leader of brahmanas,
and Vinata produced two eggs. Their delighted assistants placed the two
sisters' eggs in moist vessels, where they remained for five hundred years.
When the years had passed, the sons of Kadru hatched from their eggs, but from
Vinata's two eggs her two sons were not to be seen. That austere and godly
woman, anxious to have children, was ashamed. Thus Vinata broke open one egg
and saw therein her son. Authorities say that the upper half of the child's
body was fully developed, but the lower half was not yet well formed."
This son was Aruna, the charioteer of Surya, the sun god. His brother was the
powerful Garuda, divine eagle, who became the carrier of Vishnu. Garuda is an
avowed enemy of serpents who are his food. Krishna mentions him among the most
prominent representatives of His power: "Among the Daitya demons I am the
devoted Prahlada, among subduers I am time, among beasts I am the lion, and
among birds I am Garuda." (Bhagavad-gita 10.30)
Nilamata Purana, the ancient history of Kashmir, is centered around the
original inhabitants of Kashmir, the Nagas. In the verses 232-233 it mentions
their capital: "O Naga, the dwelling of the Nagas is the city named Bhogavati.
Having become a Yogi that Naga-chief (Vasuki) dwells there as well as here.
But with his primary body, Vasuki, protecting the Nagas, shall live in
Bhogavati. O sinless one, you (also) dwell here constantly." Bhogavati is also
mentioned in the Bhagavata Purana 1.11.11. Its another name is Putkari.
Bhagavata Purana gives the following description of Bila-svarga, the
subterranean regions compared for their opulence to heaven (5.24.7-15):
"My dear King, beneath this earth are seven other planets, known as Atala,
Vitala, Sutala, Talatala, Mahatala, Rasatala and Patala. I have already
explained the situation of the planetary systems of earth. The width and
length of the seven lower planetary systems are calculated to be exactly the
same as those of earth.
"In these seven planetary systems, which are also known as the subterranean
heavens [bila-svarga], there are very beautiful houses, gardens and places of
sense enjoyment, which are even more opulent than those in the higher planets
because the demons have a very high standard of sensual pleasure, wealth and
influence. Most of the residents of these planets, who are known as Daityas,
Danavas and Nagas, live as householders. Their wives, children, friends and
society are all fully engaged in illusory, material happiness. The sense
enjoyment of the demigods is sometimes disturbed, but the residents of these
planets enjoy life without disturbances. Thus they are understood to be very
attached to illusory happiness.
"My dear King, in the imitation heavens known as bila-svarga there is a great
demon named Maya Danava, who is an expert artist and architect. He has
constructed many brilliantly decorated cities. There are many wonderful
houses, walls, gates, assembly houses, temples, yards and temple compounds, as
well as many hotels serving as residential quarters for foreigners. The houses
for the leaders of these planets are constructed with the most valuable
jewels, and they are always crowded with living entities known as Nagas and
Asuras, as well as many pigeons, parrots and similar birds. All in all, these
imitation heavenly cities are most beautifully situated and attractively
"The parks and gardens in the artificial heavens surpass in beauty those of
the upper heavenly planets. The trees in those gardens, embraced by creepers,
bend with a heavy burden of twigs with fruits and flowers, and therefore they
appear extraordinarily beautiful. That beauty could attract anyone and make
his mind fully blossom in the pleasure of sense gratification. There are many
lakes and reservoirs with clear, transparent water, agitated by jumping fish
and decorated with many flowers such as lilies, kuvalayas, kahlaras and blue
and red lotuses. Pairs of cakravakas and many other water birds nest in the
lakes and always enjoy in a happy mood, making sweet, pleasing vibrations that
are very satisfying and conducive to enjoyment of the senses.
"Since there is no sunshine in those subterranean planets, time is not divided
into days and nights, and consequently fear produced by time does not exist.
"Many great serpents reside there with gems on their hoods, and the effulgence
of these gems dissipates the darkness in all directions.
"Since the residents of these planets drink and bathe in juices and elixirs
made from wonderful herbs, they are freed from all anxieties and physical
diseases. They have no experience of grey hair, wrinkles or invalidity, their
bodily lusters do not fade, their perspiration does not cause a bad smell, and
they are not troubled by fatigue or by lack of energy or enthusiasm due to old
"They live very auspiciously and do not fear death from anything but death's
established time, which is the effulgence of the Sudarshana chakra of the
Supreme Personality of Godhead.
"When the Sudarshana disc enters those provinces, the pregnant wives of the
demons all have miscarriages due to fear of its effulgence."
"The planetary system below Talatala is known as Mahatala. It is the abode of
many-hooded snakes, descendants of Kadru, who are always very angry. The great
snakes who are prominent are Kuhaka, Taksaka, Kaliya and Susena. The snakes in
Mahatala are always disturbed by fear of Garuda, the carrier of Lord Vishnu,
but although they are full of anxiety, some of them nevertheless sport with
their wives, children, friends and relatives.
"Beneath Mahatala is the planetary system known as Rasatala, which is the
abode of the demoniac sons of Diti and Danu. They are called Panis,
Nivata-kavacas, Kaleyas and Hiranya-puravasis [those living in Hiranya-pura].
They are all enemies of the demigods, and they reside in holes like snakes.
From birth they are extremely powerful and cruel, and although they are proud
of their strength, they are always defeated by the Sudarshana chakra of the
Supreme Personality of Godhead, who rules all the planetary systems. When a
female messenger from Indra named Sarama chants a particular curse, the
serpentine demons of Mahatala become very afraid of Indra.
"Beneath Rasatala is another planetary system, known as Patala or Nagaloka,
where there are many demoniac serpents, the masters of Nagaloka, such as
Shankha, Kulika, Mahashankha, Shveta, Dhananjaya, Dhrtarashtra, Shankhacuda,
Kambala, Ashvatara and Devadatta. The chief among them is Vasuki. They are all
extremely angry, and they have many, many hoods - some snakes five hoods, some
seven, some ten, others a hundred and others a thousand. These hoods are
bedecked with valuable gems, and the light emanating from the gems illuminates
the entire planetary system of bila-svarga."
Divine connection
Serpents have their special place in most spiritual traditions (as already
shown above) where they symbolize either good or evil. In the Vedic tradition
they are inherently related to some of its most important personages.
Shiva ("auspicious One"), is one of the members of the trimurti (Brahma,
Vishnu and Shiva). He is in charge of the material mode of ignorance
(tamo-guna) bringing destruction of the universe:
"Yamaraja said: My dear servants, you have accepted me as the Supreme, but
factually I am not. Above me, and above all the other demigods, including
Indra and Candra, is the one supreme master and controller. The partial
manifestations of His personality are Brahma, Visnu and Siva, who are in
charge of the creation, maintenance and annihilation of this universe. He is
like the two threads that form the length and breadth of a woven cloth. The
entire world is controlled by Him just as a bull is controlled by a rope in
its nose." (Bhagavata Purana 6.3.12)
His position is between the living beings (jiva-tattva) and the Supreme Lord,
Vishnu (vishnu-tattva), in the category of his own, shiva-tattva.
Shiva is usually depicted in painting and sculpture as white or ash-colored,
with a blue neck (from holding in his throat the poison thrown up at the
churning of the cosmic ocean, which threatened to destroy humankind), his hair
arranged in a coil of matted locks (jatamakuta) and adorned with the crescent
moon and the Ganges (he allowed her to trickle through his hair). He has three
eyes, the third eye bestowing inward vision but capable of burning destruction
when focused outward. He wears a garland of skulls and a serpent around his
neck and carries in his two (sometimes four) hands a deerskin, a trident, a
small hand drum, or a club with a skull at the end.
His paraphernalia symbolizes: moon - time measurement in months, three eyes -
tri-kala-jna ("knower of three phases of time - past, present, and future"),
snake around the neck - time measurement in years, necklace of skulls with
snakes - changing of ages and begetting and annihilating of mankind. His
association with the serpents is obvious from his epithets: Nagabhushana,
Vyalakalpa ("having serpents as ornaments"), Nagaharadhrik ("wearing
serpent-necklaces"), Nagaraja, Nagendra, Nagesha ("king of Nagas"), Nakula
("mongoose," one who is immune from the serpent venom), Vyalin ("one who
possesses snakes"), etc. Shiva is the main object of worship at Benares under
the name Vishveshvara ("master of the universe").
One of his features is time (Bhagavad-gita 11.32: "Time I am," Bhagavata
Purana 3.5.26-27, Brahma-samhita 5.10), the separating factor between the
material and spiritual world (Bhagavata Purana 3.10.12) and a medium to
perceive the Lord's influence (Bhagavata Purana 3.26.16).
Shiva's female consort is known under various names as Uma, Sati, Parvati,
Durga, Kali, and Shakti. The divine couple, together with their sons - the
six-headed Skanda and the elephant-headed Ganesha - are inhabiting the Mount
Kailasa in the Himalayas as well as the Mahesha-dhama on the border of the
material world (Devi-dhama) and the spiritual world (Vaikuntha or Hari-dhama).
In the Brahma-samhita he is said to be another form of Maha-Vishnu, and is
compared to a yogurt. Yogurt is nothing but milk, yet it is not milk. As
yogurt is prepared when milk is mixed with a culture, the form of Shiva
expands when the Supreme Personality of Godhead is in touch with material
nature. Since Shiva and Vishnu are aspects of one God, Shiva occurs as one of
Vishnu's names listed in the Vishnu-sahasranama.
The original father, Krishna, says, aham bija-pradah pita: "I am the
seed-giving father." That pita (father) is Lord Shiva, Shambhu, and material
nature (goddess Durga) is considered the mother. By their sexual union are all
conditioned souls inserted into the material nature. The impregnation of
material nature is wonderful because at one time innumerable living beings are
conceived. Bhago jivah sa vijneyah sa canantyaya kalpate (Shvetashvatara
Upanishad 5.9). In this way Shiva is connected with both creation and
destruction. Because of his marginal position between material and spiritual
realm he is seemingly full of contradictions but these are reconciled on the
transcendental level.
Ananta Shesha
Some of the Nagas are many-headed. Ananta, also called Shesha, the king of the
Nagas, has unlimited heads. According to the Bhagavata Purana 5.25.3, He is
the source of Rudra, an expansion of Shiva. When Krishna lists the most
prominent representatives of His power, He says, ananta casmi naganam - "among
the Nagas I am Ananta" (Bhagavad-gita 10.29).
"My dear Lord, at the end of each millennium [here Brahma's life] the Supreme
Personality of Godhead Garbhodakashayi Vishnu dissolves everything manifested
within the universe into His belly. He lies down on the lap of Shesha Naga,
from His navel sprouts a golden lotus flower on a stem, and on that lotus Lord
Brahma is created. I can understand that You are the same Supreme Godhead. I
therefore offer my respectful obeisances unto You." (Bhagavata Purana 4.9.14)
Ananta is called Shesha as He is the residue or remainder of the universe
during cosmic dissolutions. He is elaborately described in the Bhagavata
Purana, 5th khanda, chapter 25. Ultimately He will destroy the world: "At the
time of the final devastation of the complete universe [the end of the
duration of Brahma's life], a flame of fire emanates from the mouth of Ananta
(...). (Bhagavata Purana 2.2.26)
Sage Patanjali, the author of Yoga-sutras, is considered by some to be an
incarnation of Shesha. He is the author of the Mahabhashya, the celebrated
commentary on the Grammar of Panini, and a defense of that work against the
criticisms of philosopher Katyayana. His name allegedly represents that he
fell as a small snake from heaven into the palm of Panini (pata - fallen,
anjali - palm).
South Indian Vaishnava philosopher and spiritual leader Ramanuja (11th
century) is also considered an incarnation of Shesha.
"The foremost manifestation of Krishna is Sankarshana, who is known as Ananta.
He is the origin of all incarnations within this material world. Previous to
the appearance of Lord Krishna, this original Sankarshana will appear as
Baladeva, just to please the Supreme Lord Krishna in His transcendental
pastimes." (Bhagavata Purana 10.1.24)
"According to expert opinion, Balarama, as the chief of the original quadruple
forms, is also the original Sankarshana. Balarama, the first expansion of
Krishna, expands Himself in five forms: (1) Maha-Sankarshana, (2)
Karanabdhishayi, (3) Garbhodakashayi, (4) Kshirodakashayi, and (5) Shesha.
These five plenary portions are responsible for both the spiritual and
material cosmic manifestations. In these five forms Lord Balarama assists Lord
Krishna in His activities. The first four of these forms are responsible for
the cosmic manifestations, whereas Shesha is responsible for personal service
to the Lord. Shesha is called Ananta, or unlimited, because He assists the
Personality of Godhead in His unlimited expansions by performing an unlimited
variety of services. Shri Balarama is the servitor Godhead who serves Lord
Krishna in all affairs of existence and knowledge. Lord Nityananda Prabhu, who
is the same servitor Godhead, Balarama, performs the same service to Lord
Gauranga by constant association." (Chaitanya Charitamrta, Adi-lila 5.10,
purport by A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada)
Balarama appeared as Krishna's older brother and took part in Krishna's
childhood pastimes in Vrindavana. He is the first direct expansion of Krishna.
Balarama only had one wife, Revati, daughter of King Raivata, and by her He
had two sons, Nishatha and Ulmuka. He is represented as having fair
complexion, and clad in a dark-blue vest (nilavastra). His special weapons are
the club (khetaka or saunanda), the plow (hala), and the pestle (musala). Thus
He is called Phala, Hala, Halayudha ("plow-armed"), Halabhrit, Langali
("plow-bearer"), Sankarshana ("one who attracts everything"), Musali
("pestle-holder"). As he has a palm for a banner, he is called Taladhvaja. He
represents guru-tattva, the principle of spiritual master.
"May the Supreme Personality of Godhead in His incarnation as Dhanvantari
relieve me from undesirable eatables and protect me from physical illness. May
Lord Rsabhadeva, who conquered His inner and outer senses, protect me from
fear produced by the duality of heat and cold. May Yajna protect me from
defamation and harm from the populace, and may Lord Balarama as Shesha protect
me from envious serpents." (Bhagavata Purana 6.8.18)
"The Supreme Personality of Godhead said: Freed from all sinful reactions are
those who rise from bed at the end of night, early in the morning, and fully
concentrate their minds with great attention upon My form; your form; this
lake; this mountain; the caves; the gardens; the cane plants; the bamboo
plants; the celestial trees; the residential quarters of Me, Lord Brahma and
Lord Shiva; the three peaks of Trikuta Mountain, made of gold, silver and
iron; My very pleasing abode [the ocean of milk]; the white island,
Shvetadvipa, which is always brilliant with spiritual rays; My mark of
Shrivatsa; the Kaustubha gem; My Vaijayanti garland; My club, Kaumodaki; My
Sudarshana disc and Pancajanya conchshell; My bearer, Garuda, the king of the
birds; My bed, Shesha Naga; My expansion of energy the goddess of fortune;
Lord Brahma; Narada Muni; Lord Shiva; Prahlada; My incarnations like Matsya,
Kurma and Varaha; My unlimited all-auspicious activities, which yield piety to
he who hears them; the sun; the moon; fire; the mantra omkara; the Absolute
Truth; the total material energy; the cows and brahmanas; devotional service;
the wives of Soma and Kashyapa, who are all daughters of King Daksha; the
Rivers Ganges, Sarasvati, Nanda and Yamuna [Kalindi]; the elephant Airavata;
Dhruva Maharaja; the seven rshis; and the pious human beings." (Bhagavata
Purana 8.4.17-24)
Although Garuda enmity toward serpents is known from this verse it is clear
that both Garuda and Shesha Naga are servants of the Lord Vishnu, or Krishna.
Although this overview of the position of a Serpent in different traditions is
far from exhaustive the conspicuous similarity of accounts from different
cultural contexts hints that the Vedic tradition spread in the distant past
over large parts of the world. This is also supported by the tradition itself.
In this article we have traced the Serpent in various traditions, places and
contexts which ultimately lead us to the transcendental realm. On this level
the duality of "good" and "bad" ceases to exist as everything is of absolute
nature. This puts an end to the Serpent controversy.
by ssssSt. ssssSerPentine
If we are to believe that God created an expanding universe, why haven’t we expanded our own faith and understanding of God as well? And, are we deluding ourselves by inventing new reinterpretations of emotionally fixed, theological constants? This question is precisely why theologians and scientists view the scholarly work of Zecharia Sitchin with deep emotional trepidation. If Nibiru (Planet X) truly exists, it will force a global religious reformation that will expand our view of God and this possibility terrifies our sense of faith in a God we cannot see or touch. It is a widely accepted fact amongst scholars that Sumerians were the first civilization on Earth.  These ancient Middle Eastern people attributed their astounding knowledge, skill and creativity to the ancient gods of Nibiru (also known as Planet X.)  If this planet is discovered, only the desperately myopic will be able to blindly deny that it was the home planet of their gods, and therefore the origin of their religious beliefs.  If so, the gods of Planet X may have formed the foundation of a belief that has been the wellspring of many religions that we are still following; we may be unknowingly upholding their ancient beliefs derived from star gods. If we closely examine the teachings of our ancient religious scriptures with an unbiased eye, it is certain that we will see a higher spiritual presence that is our true God.  Likewise, it is also possible that we will see evidence of ancient advanced human gods who came to Earth thousands of years ago from another world.  If so, this explains why we tend to give God lowly human attributes such as vengeance.  Ergo, the path to understanding begins with a simple and all too familiar question:
Who or what is God(s)?
 Every religion seeks to answer that question in its own way, yet those that dominate the religious views of most earthlings share common threads such as monotheism, the belief in only one God. A careful study of any religion will reveal how it has changed as the life of the people has changed.  It is natural, then, that each religion should take on the characteristics of the people around whose culture it developed. The surprising thing is that the world's living religions are so much alike in many respects.  Considering the great diversity of cultural developments throughout the world, it is a wonder that the religions of mankind are at all alike. The primary reason for this widespread similarity is that the world’s religions can all be traced back to earlier sources. The earliest such source comes from the ancient Sumerian culture, which was the first civilization on Earth.
Why is it that most historians and academics only choose to classify history as fact up to a certain point?  Is it because this mysterious demarcation point is defined by religion?
History books regale us with the remarkable achievements of these ancient civilizations, yet when they get around to explaining the source of their knowledge and religion, these remarkable civilizations are quickly pegged as primitive myth-based cultures. Why is it that even men and women of science judge all faiths by those in practice today, and therefore discount and play down ancient religions as myths?  This characteristic of today's culture seems especially hypocritical considering that our religions are all based on the foundations of such “mythical” beliefs. What we must keep in mind is that although many of the fundamentals of our religions are strikingly similar, an important difference is the definition of God amongst these religions. God is a word that means different things to different people.  To many Taoist or Buddhist the word is not part of their religion's glossary.  To Hindus that word has a different meaning than it does to a Christian.  Muslims have a different perspective and so do the Jews.
Let’s assume that our religions can be divided into two basic categories of belief:
God or Gods with a physical form somewhere beyond the Earth.
God as an infinite, formless entity beyond all our understanding.  
The differences between these two assumptions can be better understood when we take into account the religious beliefs of the ancient false gods of Nibiru themselves, which brings us to the scholarly work of Zecharia Sitchin. Sitchin’s “Earth Chronicles” research has reinterpreted the Bible and the fundamental meaning behind stories upon which it is based. Using translations of the ancient texts as his source, he has compiled the sophisticated knowledge of the Sumerians into a brand new history book for those with the intellectual courage to pursue a new path of discovery.   For those so inclined, this path has led to a remarkable reacquisition of lost Sumerian knowledge. What we’ve learned is that the Sumerian’s did not take credit for the discoveries of their own knowledge.  Instead, they humbly attributed the source of their knowledge to "Those who from heaven to Earth came" -- an advanced human race known by the Sumerians as Anunnaki.  This in part explains our present day concept of faith in God despite an absence of physical proof. Thousands of years ago when the Anunnaki ("Those who from heaven to Earth came") walked the Earth, the Sumerians witnessed the physical evidence of these flesh and blood gods and naturally worshiped them.  Consequently, faith was not an explicit requirement in their religion because the evidence of their Gods stood before them.  In present times, we can no longer see our God(s).  Some faiths use a combination of faith reinforced by icons and others simply use faith alone.  Either way, this is why today's religions insistently demand faith in the unseen as a prerequisite to reaching God. Since the ancient Anunnaki gods left our planet long ago, all we have left of them is the proof in texts that we have discovered. These historical texts describe flesh and blood gods that did exist even though they are still regarded as myths by mainstream science and theology.  This is why the emphasis in religion today is that of faith, and it is nothing short of blinding. When faith alone drives our decisions without applying constructive questioning and searching for the truth ourselves, it can result in the aberrations we call “sin” and doubt. However, when the knowledge of truth produces faith, the aberrations are corrected. When truths are scattered in the wind as they are today, interesting things begin to happen. Throughout the natural progression of history, the knowledge and beliefs of the Sumerians have degenerated like a whisper into the prevalent religious texts of our day, such as the Bible.  In most cases the fundamental story is the same, but the characters have changed and the context is different.  This is the cause of the inconsistencies and arguments between and within religious institutions of today and the need to reassure our faith that the words are still correct.  Perhaps this is why some statements of eternal wisdom from the Bible instruct us to test all things.  But why should the Bible be an exception to this rule?
1 Thessalonians 5: 21-22
Put all things to the test: keep what is good and avoid every kind of evil.
1 John 4: 1
My dear friends, do not believe all who claim to have the Spirit, but test them to find out if the spirit they have comes from God.  For many false prophets have gone out everywhere. Given that modern texts such as the Bible were compiled and edited by human hands, in several languages, and from several differing sources, it raises the possibility that information from "false prophets" could have also been included as well.  Therefore, our modern texts should not be excluded from critical investigation, as they too can be myth-based as well.  However, the discomfort in doing so brings us directly into conflict with our faith in the unseen where each unbiased search of unvarnished truth is accompanied by a jab of fear that tests our faith. On one hand, we see the logic of pursuing the unvarnished truth.  On the other, when the painful jabs of fear that test our faith unsettle us and like Pavlov’s Dogs, we begin responding to the pain and not the logic.  This is why faith, as opposed to logic, has been used so liberally throughout the Bible.  The fate of the biblical Enoch is one example of how faith can be capricious and judgmental in its application.
Hebrews 11: 5
It was faith that kept Enoch from dying.  Instead, he was taken up to God, and nobody could find him, because God had taken him up.
Despite the fact that hundreds of other people had deep devotion and faith in God at the time, only Enoch was granted immortality. It seems that nobody else’s faith was strong enough. It is such demanding and unrealistic levels of faith that have paved the way for full acceptance of the biblical scriptures as holy.  Since faith was not a requirement in the Sumerian religion, perhaps we should try to brush away our faith for a brief moment, and take a closer look at some fundamentals of our religions.  If we do, elements of the Sumerian religion begin to appear in earnest.  One of these elements is the Sabbath day.  The whole chapter of Genesis can easily be traced back to the Babylonian Epic of Creation.  Also known by its opening words “Enuma elish”, it was written on seven tablets with the last one devoted to the worship of a god.
Genesis 2: 2-3
By the seventh day God finished what he had been doing and stopped working.  He blessed the seventh day and set it apart as a special day, because by that day he had completed his creation and stopped working.
It is also known that this text was a translation of an earlier Sumerian text.  However the original Sumerian text did not attribute the creation of the solar system to a god.  Instead, they knew it was a rogue planet called Nibiru that was responsible for creating Earth during a cataclysmic collision with another planet as the solar system was forming.  However as history progressed, a powerful god named Marduk authorized the changing of the texts to worship him on the seventh day instead. Marduk was a Sun god that was worshiped under many names, and whose legacy continued throughout history.  To the Egyptians, Marduk was known as the Sun god Ra.  In later times, Sun gods went by names such as Utu, Shamash and Baal. It is these ancient Sun gods that have always enforced a day of worship on what they called "Sun-Day".  In fact every day of the week is named after an ancient god. If you look in any calendar or dictionary, you will find that Sunday has become the first day of the week instead of the seventh as followed in ancient times.  The Vatican and many other religions still maintain their Sabbath day on Sunday.  However it is for all the wrong reasons. By every modern day definition, Saturday is described as the seventh day.  It is the Vatican that decided to change worship from Saturday to Sunday, the beginning of the week.  Has the Vatican done this to appease the ancient gods?
Many religious leaders will tell you that the Sabbath day (the seventh day) was changed by Christ or his apostle to Sunday to commemorate the resurrection of Christ who rose from the dead on a Sunday. But where is this written in the scriptures? This change has only been authorized by the Vatican, and in doing so keeps with the tradition of ancient Sun worship towards Anunnaki gods, not the true almighty spiritual God. The reason such a change has been allowed stems from claims that the pope possesses infallibility when it comes to the ancient biblical scriptures.  The Vicarius Filii Dei is without fault, and the words he speaks are binding on all Christians, according to the papacy.  But where in the Word of God can we find any statement that Jesus, the founder of Christianity, commanded a spiritual ruler or a substitute in His place to rule over His people?  Where in the Word of God did Jesus set up a hierarchy of Archbishops, Cardinals, Priests, and a Sisterhood of Nuns? This infallibility and false power disguised by the dependence of faith has hidden the true meaning and source of these ancient concepts from their followers. For another example of how faith has blinded us from seeing the Sumerian elements in our religion, lets look at the concept of resurrection. Many scriptures such as the Bible and Koran describe a physical resurrection sometime in our future when the day of our judgement arrives.  While there are parallels in several different ancient texts that can explain where the notion of judgement and resurrection came from, one of the earliest is the Babylonian story of Marduk's imprisonment, escape and judgement. This historic event was originally translated and then announced in 1921 by Heinrich Zimmern.  Religious theologians everywhere became severely threatened by this new information that was obviously a much earlier Christ tale of the resurrection of an Anunnaki god.
Before I summarize the story, allow me to introduce you to some of the most powerful gods from Sumerian culture.
The ruler of the gods’ home planet Nibiru is ANU  
ANU had two sons, ENKI and ENLIL  
ENKI had two sons, DUMUZI and MARDUK  
ENLIL had a granddaughter, INANNA
As a background to this story, it should be known that the relationship between Dumuzi and Inanna was very much like our modern day Romeo and Juliet.  That was because their associated parents and grandparents were brothers and bitter adversaries. After being evicted from Babylon and Mesopotamia, Marduk returned to Egypt to find that his brother Dumuzi had gained the upper hand of power for the throne.  Marduk was suspicious of his younger brother’s actions because his bride Inanna was a descendent of Enlil. Before Dumuzi could become the true ruler of Egypt, he had to have an heir to the throne.  After several unsuccessful attempts with his bride Inanna, the frustrated Dumuzi carried out a premeditated plan to rape his own sister for a child. This violation of the Anunnaki code resulted in a set of orders being issued to capture him.  However Marduk -- not the full Anunnaki council issued these orders. After eventually being captured, Dumuzi tried to escape and accidentally drowned in the river.  While the death of Dumuzi was an accident, Inanna held Marduk responsible and sought revenge.  Marduk retreated into the great pyramid where Inanna could not reach him.  A hearing was then setup in order to determine an appropriate punishment.  It was decided that Marduk would be sentenced to death by sealing him alive inside the great pyramid to be buried alive.  Marduk's wife appealed to Inanna's father and brother for him to be released.  The real guilty god was eventually captured and executed.  In light of the true god responsible being found, the other gods realized their judgement was wrong and Marduk was resurrected from his sentence of death.  Finding Sumerian foundations of Anunnaki gods embedded in such concepts as the Sabbath day and resurrections is only a small step in grasping the real truth behind our beliefs.  The most fundamental questions are who, or what is God? Answering these questions requires looking at Heaven, Hell, Satan, and puts an even greater weight on our faith. However, this a small price for enlightenment.
Increasing numbers of people are beginning to take their own journeys to discover spiritual enlightenment on their own terms. Those that do often describe things like higher spiritual planes of existence and an inner feeling of being at one with God.  While some people call this place Heaven, it is only because we have no other name for it. The Heaven and Hell as described in the Bible are actually nothing like this.  In ancient Sumerian texts we can once again find rational explanations that remove the spiritual connotations from the biblical Heaven, Hell, and Satan.  The true answers regarding who, what and where of God, are much more fascinating than anything presented in ancient scriptures of Anunnaki gods. Heaven is supposed to be the place we strive to get to when we die.  It is believed by many to be a one-way trip attainable only through death.  However, one of several mortals, who were privileged to ascend to Heaven without death, was Enoch.  What is even more interesting is that he was able to temporarily return from this place in physical form.  The Bible explicitly states the age of death for many people, however it states that Enoch never died because he was taken to Heaven alive.
Genesis 5: 23-24
"He lived to be 365 years old.  He spent his life in fellowship with God, and then he disappeared, because God took him away.
Given that this would seem physically impossible, it is not surprising that the Bible does not elaborate on this disappearance any further.  Fortunately, the extra-biblical "Book of Enoch" has survived throughout the millennia and provides much better detail to this remarkable event that the compilers of the Bible somehow thought irrelevant. If the heaven described in the Bible is a place where you can come and go while remaining in physical form, is this really the same place our souls are supposed to go when we die?  Perhaps the answer lies in Genesis.
Genesis 1: 7-8
"So God made the expanse and separated the water under the expanse from the water above it.  And it was so.  God called the expanse sky/heaven.
It seems the biblical descriptions of heaven are more to do with stars and planets in space than spiritual realms of the dead.
Zecharia Sitchin has demonstrated through Sumerian texts that the original formation of the Earth was reportedly caused by a collision between two planets as our solar system was formed.  This theory has only recently begun to win support from the academic community.  In the Sumerian descriptions, the primary planet responsible was Nibiru, the eventual home planet of the Anunnaki.  It seems that many references in the Bible to Heaven have actually been referring to Nibiru, as this is where their gods came from and took people like Enoch. The orbit of this planet is highly elliptical and has been estimated to take 3,600 years to orbit our Sun.  This journey takes the planet through the regions of all other planets in our solar system.  When religious texts speak of the coming Judgement Day, perhaps they are actually referring to this rogue planet that is estimated to be several times the size of Jupiter.  The potential destructive power such a planet could have on Earth would certainly be of biblical proportions.
Isaiah 65:17
The LORD says, "I am making a new earth and new heavens.  The events of the past will be completely forgotten".
Koran: A fateful hour it shall be both in the heavens and on Earth.  It will come without warning.
2 Peter 3: 10
But the Day of the Lord will come like a thief.  On that Day the heavens will disappear with a shrill noise, the heavenly bodies will burn up and be destroyed, and the earth with everything in it will vanish.
If the foretold judgement day is about the rights and wrongs of mankind as we have been taught, why destroy all of the heavens in the process? If Heaven is nothing more than a place somewhere amongst the stars on the planet Nibiru as the Sumerians believed, what about Hell?
Hell On Earth
The Church of England has recently abolished “Hell” as we know it by completely changing the definition.
Creationisim Of The Early Church
A Review of The Mystery of Salvation: The Story of God's Gift
Only one sentence of this latest report from the Church of England's Doctrine Commission is likely to be remembered.  "Hell is not eternal torment, but it is the final and irrevocable choosing of that which is opposed to God so completely and so absolutely that the only end is total non-being." [p.199]
If those that control the religions believe they have the power to simply change an entire spiritual concept whenever they see fit, how much of our faith should we be investing in them?  If they were wrong the first time, couldn't they be wrong this time also?  
The Jehovah’s Witness religion uses the original Hebrew Scriptures for the source of their beliefs.  This is useful for a traditional definition of Hell.
Hell stands for the Hebrew Sheol of the Old Testament and the Greek Hades of the Septuagint and New Testament.
Hades is commonly known as the Greek god of the underworld.  Sitchin and many others have proven that this underworld called  the "Lower World" were actually hellish underground mines located in Africa where the Anunnaki forced human to  mine for gold.  While this was indeed a hellish place for the enslaved gold miners, it was arguably never intended to endure as a spiritual place of deathly eternity. So now we have a Heaven on a planet amongst the stars, and a Hell right here on Earth.  Before we get passed the Anunnaki and onto the true spiritual God, we must resolve the question of who Satan is.  After all, religions have relied heavily on this concept to scare people into investing their faith in order to be saved from him.
Devil In The Detail
The word "Devil" is derived from the Greek word "Diabolos", which means "accuser/slanderer". The word "Satan" comes from a Hebrew term meaning "resister/adversary". It is therefore apparent that the only "Evil" connotations that can been attributed to these words are solely through religious dogma. What the words really indicate are opposing gods. A perfect description of the documented fighting observed between the Anunnaki brothers Enlil and Enki.
If Satan is merely Enki as Zecharia Sitchin has described, did he really look like the Satan we have grown to loath and fear? Satan is commonly recognized by primarily two images.  That of the snake and that of a horned, winged demon with pointed tail.
Enki is commonly known throughout ancient texts as a serpent god.  The literal meaning of the Hebrew word for the Biblical serpent is "to find things out, to solve secrets".  Since Enki was the chief scientist and "God of Knowledge" amongst the Anunnaki, this is a very befitting description. The biblical Serpent surely was not a lowly, literal snake-for he could converse with Eve, he knew the truth about the matter of "knowing", and he was of such high stature that he unhesitatingly exposed the deity as a liar.  We recall that in all traditions, the chief deity fought a Serpent adversary-a tale whose roots undoubtedly go back to the Sumerian gods. The image of a horned, winged demon with a bull’s head and tail is a representation of Satan that can be traced back to the Sumerian "Myth of Zu".  The story is set after the rearrangement of command and division of Earths realms between Anu's sons Enki and Enlil.  At this time, there were 600 Anunnaki people working on Earth.  There were also another 300 known as Igigi, "Those who observe and see".  These Igigi gods manned the shuttles that transported the gold back to Nibiru.  The Igigi began to complain about the lack of facilities on Earth for them to rest after spending so much time in space. The Igigi decided to send an emissary to Enlil to discuss the matter; his name was Anzu, or Zu for short.  To persuade him to forget about the concerns of the Igigi, he was given a new, more important job of guarding the secret chamber where the all-important "Tablets of destinies" were being kept.  Eventually, the temptation from the power contained in these tablets got the better of Zu and he stole them, fleeing Earth "in his bird".  This left the entire planet in a state of crisis, as the whole operation and destiny of the Anunnaki was now in jeopardy.  
The story concludes with Zu being captured, judged and executed for his crimes of deceit and terror.  The Sumerians made countless artistic impressions of this event, with Zu represented with bird-like feet, wings and feathers to indicate his allegiance to the Igigi, the ones "who fly".  In addition to these features, horns were commonly drawn as a headdress to signify the godly status of the Anunnaki people, much like halos are commonly used to signify hallowed spirits.  The Babylonians and Assyrians remembered the event throughout history by conducting rituals where a bull is sacrificed in the presence of the godhead. Taking ease with the understanding that Hell and Satan do not exist as we have come to know them, we may finally answer the question of who or what is God.  It seems that our religious scriptures contain references to physical interventionist Anunnaki gods, as well as an all seeing, all knowing, spiritual entity also called God. For those that do not believe in God, deductions from observations easily lead to statements like the following: "God ignores our prayers and allows suffering to continue. Therefore, either God does not exist or he hates us all anyway." Zecharia Sitchin has informed us about the Sumerian story of creation involving Anu, Enlil, Enki, and how the Biblical deluge was intended to wipe out humanity.  This is the holy trinity that Christians worship but abstractly avoid this fact by saying that God is actually all three at once.  After we were saved thanks to the merciful Enki helping Noah, the gods had a change of heart and took a liking to us.  These ancient mannerisms are also echoed in the Bible.  The Old Testament tells of an angry and vengeful God, while in the New Testament he is merciful and forgiving. In ancient times when these gods were originally worshipped, they indeed answered people's prayers and physically punished them for their sins.  It was a time when religion had an obvious cause and effect component to it.  Worshipers even fought alongside Anunnaki gods when infighting broke out into full-scale wars, as documented by Sitchin in “The Wars of Gods and Men”. Now that these ancient gods have all departed, is it any wonder that the gods no longer intervene with our day-to-day lives like our ancestors had come to expect?
These physical flesh and blood human Anunnaki gods have been interwoven into our biblical scriptures making it very confusing for the inquisitive mind to grasp the true nature of God.  It now seems that to understand who the true spiritual God really is, we must become aware of these ancient false gods, and look to sources other than our copies of the Koran or Bible for all the answers. If many of the concepts from religious texts such as the Bible are merely describing the worship and lives of false gods, what information do we have to indicate that a true God exists?  After all, something still had to be responsible for the creation of the entire universe and these Anunnaki gods. It seems that the original compilers of the Bible may have been aware of the difference between the false gods that created us, and the true God that created them and the entire universe.
Isaiah 44: 6
I am the Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the end, the first and the last.
According to Sitchen, the Bible was originally written in Hebrew and that each letter of the Hebrew alphabet corresponds with a numerical value.  The first letter Aleph, equates to one, Beth equates to two.  If God is the alpha and the omega, why did the compilers of the Bible decide to begin the book with the lesser second character, Beth?  Perhaps the compilers were trying to convey a hidden meaning.  Could this message be that many of the references to God in the Bible were actually describing the false Anunnaki gods from the earlier Sumerian texts?
The answer lies in the first line from the Bible that commonly translates to:
"In the beginning, God created the Heaven and the Earth".
If the first letter of Beth is replaced by an Aleph in this opening line, the meaning changes remarkably to reveal the answer to the question of gods or God?
"The Father-of-Beginning created the Deities, the Heavens, and the Earth."
Many people may be understandably upset and automatically recoil in denial after reading that their religion is based on false gods.  This will primarily harm the religious institutions that currently enjoy, and in many cases abuse the power they have been given.  For the individual, it should open up a new and more fascinating realization that is now beginning to gain widespread support. By reclaiming the faith, knowledge, and power we have invested in building our churches and empowering our leaders, we can enable ourselves to reach the realization that the Kingdom of God is within all of us.
The Gospel according to Thomas is an ancient collection of sayings of Jesus said to have been recorded by Judas Thomas the Twin.  Unlike other early Christian gospels, which typically consist of narrative accounts interpreting the life of Jesus of Nazareth and culminating in descriptions of his death, the Gospel of Thomas focuses specifically upon sayings of Jesus.
Jesus said, "If your leaders say to you, "Look, the kingdom is in heaven", then the birds of heaven will precede you.  If they say to you, "It is in the sea", then the fish will precede you. Rather, the kingdom is inside you and it is outside you.
While many of today's religious institutions refuse to acknowledge the validity of the information within the Gospel of Thomas, the key principle from this text can actually be found within the Bible itself.
Luke 17: 20-21
Some Pharisees asked Jesus when the Kingdom of God would come.  His answer was, "The Kingdom of God does not come in such a way as to be seen. No one will say, "Look, here it is!" or, "There it is!"; because the Kingdom of God is within you."
This spiritual Kingdom of God foretold to be inside us is now being discovered by the scientific community. New scientific evidence seems to attribute our belief in God to our biological construction, rather than the blind faith demanded by our religions.  This evidence shows that our brains may be hardwired to believe and experience the spiritually infinite Kingdom of God.   The left side of our brain processes all the practical, factual, and logical information that we experience.  The right side of our brain is less interested in facts, and is responsible for our emotions and feelings. In the 1970's psychiatrist and anthropologist Eugene d'Aquili began research to see if brain activity could produce religious experiences.  In the early 1990's, he teamed up with radiologist Andrew Newberg from the University of Pennsylvania to image the brains of Tibetan Buddhists and Franciscan Nuns.  What they found was a distinct lack of activity in the left portion of the brain known as the orientation area, during highly meditative states. These are rare experiences, requiring an almost total blackout of the orientation area.  But Newberg and d'Aquili believed lower degrees of blockage could produce a range of milder, more ordinary spiritual experiences, as when believers "lose themselves" in prayer or feel a sense of unity during a religious service.  Their research suggests that all these feelings are founded not in emotion or wishful thinking, but the genetically arranged wiring of the brain.  Indeed, Newberg's scans suggest the brain may be able to experience two realities.  In one reality, awareness reaches the mind through the filter of the self.  In the other, the self is swept aside, and the mind's awareness grows broader and more unified.  Perhaps the knowledge of this higher, infinite and yet self contained Kingdom of God that can be found in many Eastern religions has been derived from the religion that the Anunnaki themselves followed and brought to Earth.  It is this knowledge we should be learning more about in order to guarantee a future for our faith in God. After comparing the practices and beliefs of religions today along with newfound historic knowledge, it is possible to ascertain a link back to ancient Sumerian times.  Your initial reaction to this link can be outright rejections, unbiased curiosity or anything in-between and what you do about that depends on whether or not you feel an inner need to find your path to the largest questions of life.  If even the limits of this article have served to expand the questions in your mind in much the same way our own universe is expanding…
click here